Veterinary Nursing of Exotic Species Lectures: Rabbits, Birds & Rodents

Hi all,

I have been asked back to lecture again this year by The College of Animal Welfare at Potter’s Bar, so will be running three days of lectures for veterinary nurses who are interested in caring for exotic pets. ‘Exotics’ in veterinary medicine as you’ll know covers any pet that isn’t a dog or cat, so we will be kicking off on 11th May with Rabbits, then 3rd June with nursing care of Birds and on the 19th October Small Furries aka rodents and other small mammals. Please share if you know of any veterinary nurses who are interested in improving their knowledge and practical skills with exotic pets. I promise they will be fun and useful sessions to build your confidence with these animals, and you’ll bring back lots of tips & tricks to use in practice!

Here’s the link to where you can book a place (http://www.caw.ac.uk/courses/cpd/veterinary-nursing-cpd-short-courses-events/?bb=52754), and some more details in the meantime:

Name
Veterinary Nursing CPD and Events – Nursing the Rabbit Patient
Date/Time
Wed 11th May 9:30-16:00, CAW Potters Bar, EN6 1NB
Description
Rabbits are the 3rd most popular pet in the UK. This course is aimed at students and qualified veterinary nurses who wish to expand and update their knowledge of the pet rabbit – you’ll be seeing them at least weekly!
The day will recap handling techniques (theory only), husbandry, aspects of nutrition, common illnesses and anaesthesia within a referral practice setting.
Sean McCormack is a qualified veterinary surgeon with extensive experience in exotic medicine, and has lectured and written about exotic medicine many times.Lecturer: Sean McCormack BSc (Hons), MVB, MRCVS

Name

Veterinary Nursing CPD and Events – Nursing the Bird Patient

Date/Time
Fri 3rd Jun 9:30-16:00, CAW Potters Bar, EN6 1NB
Description
A wide variety of birds are frequently seen in clinical practice. Your patients can range from a timid little budgie all the way to an angry parrot with a razor sharp beak. Despite the varied background the initial treatment and supportive care of birds can be applied across many species. This day will cover the basic husbandry of commonly seen species and consider triage, as well as emergency treatment and supportive care of ill birds.
Sean McCormack is a qualified veterinary surgeon with extensive experience in exotic medicine, and has lectured and written frequently on exotic medicine issues.Lecturer: Sean McCormack BSc (Hons), MVB, MRCVS

Name

Veterinary Nursing CPD and Events – Nursing the Common Small Furry

Date/Time
Wed 19th Oct 9:30-16:00, CAW Potters Bar, EN6 1NB
Description
‘Small furries’ are popular pets, this course is aimed at students and qualified veterinary nurses who wish to expand and update their knowledge of the more common small furry animals. The day will recap handling techniques (theory only), husbandry, aspects of nutrition, common illnesses and anaesthesia within a first opinion practice setting.
Sean McCormack is a qualified veterinary surgeon with extensive experience in exotic medicine, and has lectured and written about exotic medicine many times.Lecturer: Sean McCormack BSc (Hons), MVB, MRCVS

 

 

 

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Reptile Keeping: 9 Signs You’re Doing It Wrong!

  1. You feed your leopard geckos an exclusive mealworm diet, from a bowl, with a separate dish of calcium powder. Groan…..

2. You have no idea where in the world your animal originates, or what it’s actual habitat looks like.

 

3. Your reptile keeping inspirations are certain US ‘big breeder’ YouTube sensations who stack ’em high, & rack ’em wide!

 

4. Your stock answer to the question “What temperature are you keeping them at?” is: “It has a 60W bulb”.

 

5. You believe that sand causes impaction, and not that sand impaction is a symptom of poor husbandry and/or nutrition.

 

6. You ask for advice for an urgent medical condition your pet reptile is suffering from on 7 Facebook forums, 5 local petshops, 3 breeders you know, 1 vet you know through Facebook (ahem!) and your mate down the pub…..before finally booking a vet appointment 2 weeks later.

7. You are breeding normal Bearded Dragons currently in the UK despite a massive overpopulation and welfare problem with unwanted Beardies.

Baby bearded dragons

 

8. You buy or ‘rescue’ reptiles without researching them, then ask other people how that species are best cared for or what medical care it needs (that you can’t afford) now you’ve taken it from the previous owners.

 

9. You don’t recognise the difference between an animal surviving Vs thriving, and continue to defend old school husbandry practices like withholding UV lighting from species that are exposed to it in the wild.

Metabolic Bone Disease: Another Rubber Tortoise!

WARNING: THE VIDEO AT THE END OF THIS ARTICLE IS DISTRESSING AND FEATURES A DEAD ANIMAL IN A POOR PHYSICAL STATE. PLEASE WATCH AT YOUR DISCRETION.

Virtually every week I am presented with a pet reptile which has an advanced disease relating to poor owner preparation or knowledge on how to keep these specialist animals. Today I had a tortoise patient booked in as a health check, but knew instantly on taking it out of it’s container that I would be humanely putting it to sleep as it had been suffering for a long time from metabolic bone disease (MBD) relating to poor husbandry and nutrition. I am angry, frustrated and weary of having to destroy animals that can be kept very successfully in captivity with a little bit of preparation, initial outlay of financial investment, research and common sense. I am astounded that I am having the same conversations over and over again with reptile owners who really don;t know how to keep the animals in their care, but have taken someone else’s word for it without doing extensive research of their own. I will explain what led to this animal’s demise, and how it could have been prevented. I hope this post gets shared widely as the owner has kindly agreed I can share the story so that other owners may be educated and welfare improves for at least some animals as a result. I have to commend the owner of this tortoise for at least bringing the tortoise to the vet. I’m sure many don’t and their animal dies slowly at home. My role as a vet is to educate owners and safeguard animal welfare, often having to be quite diplomatic in the face of pretty distressing cases of animal suffering. I recognise the tone of this post comes across as an angry rant, but I need to drum home an important message in the hopes I help some new keepers revise the care they are providing to their pet reptile and correct any issues before they cause such suffering as I saw today. Firstly, before I get to the details of this case let me explain a little about metabolic bone disease (MBD).

MBD is a condition whereby an animal lacking in calcium, ultraviolet (UV) light exposure or both eventually becomes so deficient that it starts to absorb calcium from it’s skeleton and in the case of turtles and tortoises, it’s shell, in order to maintain normal metabolic function. Calcium is required for a variety of bodily functions including skeletal growth, neurological activity, muscle contractions and hormonal control for example. Reptiles in captivity are particularly vulnerable to MBD as they are reliant on their owners to provide them with artificial UV lighting, replication of a varied and natural diet, as well as appropriate calcium and other vitamin/mineral supplementation. The absorption of UVB light from natural sunlight allows reptiles to synthesise Vitamin D3 in their skin, and vitamin D3 allows them then to absorb calcium from their diet in the gut. This delicate balance between sunlight, vitamin D and dietary calcium sources is reliant on environmental temperatures, and is hindered if reptiles are kept in conditions which are colder than their preferred optimal temperature zone (POTZ). So you can appreciate that there is a fine balance between several interlinked factors that could contribute to the development of MBD when we take reptiles into captivity and take control of their immediate environment. Temperature, lighting and diet are the three factors that lead to the development of MBD. Get any one of those factors incorrect and you are setting your animal up for ill health. For further reading on this topic I can highly recommend reading the following book from leading reptile lighting specialists Arcadia: (www.arcadia-reptile.com/mbd-book-reviews/).

The basis of keeping any reptile as a pet is very simple. I will share this basic ‘secret’ now. It is not rocket science. It is very simple and achievable. Although it is often inconvenient or more expensive than some people are prepared to pay. And it is not often achieved by taking shortcuts or following some pet shop’s or online forum’s advice. The simple rule of reptile keeping is this:

REPLICATE THEIR NATURAL CONDITIONS IN THE WILD!

Sounds easy, right? Well it is. But unfortunately there are a multitude of sources of information giving conflicting advice, a bewildering array of equipment and housing options commercially available, and an unfortunate trend in the reptile hobby of keeping animals in conditions which allow them to survive with minimal effort or expense. The aim of keeping reptiles as pets should be to provide them everything they need to allow them to thrive and flourish in as near natural conditions as possible, not just to survive with the minimum provisions they need. It is not up to the pet shop staff to give you the right equipment. It is not up to the guy on some forum who told you how to keep your pet alive. It is up to YOU to research the conditions your animal comes from in the wild, and how best to replicate them in captivity. There is no one perfect list or care sheet that does this work for you. Different keepers do things different ways. What you need to research is what temperature, humidity, diet and light your animal needs and then ensure you are providing that by monitoring the conditions in your particular set up. Just because someone does it their specific way and has had success, doesn’t mean you will achieve the same in your particular setup by following their lead. There are many variables that might affect your animal’s long term health.

I have lost count of the amount of times I ask someone the question: “What temperature is your vivarium?” and am met with the reply “I don’t know, it’s warm”. A thermometer so you can record and monitor the temperature, and a thermostat to control the temperature are two vital pieces of equipment for providing the correct environment. A thermometer costs very little, a thermostat significantly more. But without them how do you know you are providing the animal with the correct range of temperatures it needs to survive? YOU DON’T! So you could be providing sub optimal temperatures sometimes or overheating your animal at others, resulting in biological stress and impaired immunity or overall health. If you have no thermostatic control of your vivarium, then the temperatures will fluctuate depending on conditions outside the vivarium in the room for example. Hence why advice telling you a specific wattage of bulb is suitable for a certain species is far too vague, as it doesn’t take into account how cold or warm the room in which the vivarium is housed tends to be. Rather, good advice should tell you the correct temperature  range for your species, and it is up to you to find the correct bulb or other heating to achieve that temperature range that allows natural thermoregulation. UV lighting needs to be the correct intensity for the species of reptile being kept, needs to give enough exposure to UV rays by it’s spread and location in the enclosure and needs to be replaced frequently to maintain high enough levels in the enclosure. These bulbs also cost money. Diet needs to be researched. Convenient options often lead to long term problems. It takes time and significant effort, as well as significant expense, to provide a varied and natural diet. If you are not willing to invest this time, research, effort and expense into keeping a pet reptile, DO NOT BUY ONE!

The reptile hobby as it stands is under increasing pressure from animal rights and welfare lobbyists arguing that these animals should not be kept in captivity at all due to the significant welfare problems they experience and the relatively high (often over exaggerated) mortality rates. I know many wonderful, knowledgeable and extremely capable reptile keepers as friends and as clients who provide amazing care to the animals they look after. However, there is a massive welfare problem with captive reptiles which cannot be ignored. I see it in my line of work very frequently that beginner or inexperienced keepers are making very costly husbandry or nutrition mistakes which are costing the lives of a huge number of animals up and down the country every day. As a hobby, we are defensive when criticised by animal rights groups, but to ignore that there are huge welfare problems in the hobby is actually doing ourselves a disservice.

Anyway, back to the tortoise I had to euthanise today. It was only a year and a half old and had been purchased from someone online. It had been kept in a vivarium with a single combined UV and heat lamp as the sole heat source. The owner didn’t know what temperatures were being provided. There was no thermostat. The pet shop staff told the owner that bulb was suitable for tortoises. The bulb had not been changed for well over a year. The tortoise was fed commercial tortoise pellets from a large plastic tub as it’s staple diet. It also ate lettuce and cucumber. No calcium, multivitamin or mineral supplements were provided. The owner noticed it’s shell was ‘looking weird’ around Christmas time. Today is the last day of March. It was brought in today because it had stopped eating. It had also stopped moving very much. It’s shell was very flat and very soft. TORTOISES SHOULD NOT HAVE SOFT SHELLS! IF THEY DO, YOU’VE BEEN DOING IT WRONG! Why are we still seeing cases where reptile owner’s are doing it so wrong?

Here’s my take on the above husbandry failings. You should research tortoise or any pet’s care long before you buy one. You should have read all available information, and asked as many questions as you can of experienced keepers until you are an expert on their care. Clear up any confusion you have before you purchase an animal. Don’t just listen to one point of view. Explore the theory, and examine the logic behind the varied advice you are given. Steer clear of prescriptive advice that tells you ‘X species needs Y type of bulb’. REPTILE HUSBANDRY IS NOT THAT SIMPLE!

Mediterranean tortoises do best in large open topped well ventilated enclosures such as ‘tortoise tables’. Vivaria can lead to problems with temperature and humidity for Mediterranean tortoises. A single combination UV and heat bulb may work for some keepers who have mastered the pretty simple task of knowing and controlling the temperature correctly using a thermometer and thermostat, selecting the correct wattage bulb for their set up and providing a nutritious, appropriate captive diet with correct supplementation. It does not work for everyone, and I would argue that pet shops should not be selling these bulbs for beginners to keeping tortoises as these are the owners who are likely to get other factors such as diet wrong too. A preferable option is to provide a heat lamp and a separate UVB fluorescent tube which covers the entire length of the enclosure. That way the tortoise will receive UV light throughout the entire enclosure, even when it is not basking directly under the heat lamp. Tortoises do not bask in the one spot for long periods, they roam. By choosing a combination bulb your tortoise may not receive the optimal level of UVB exposure over time and therefore if your temperatures and diet are also somewhat deficient your tortoise will not thrive. It may even develop metabolic bone disease. Remember the intricate relationship between temperature, lighting and dietary balance? Take any one of those factors out or skimp on their provision and you are setting yourself up for a case of entirely avoidable MBD, among other potential health problems. If you do not know the temperature you are keeping your reptile at, buy a thermometer and find out. Pretty simple concept. If the temperature fluctuates widely in your specific set up due to external factors then buy a thermostat and make sure it is controlled. Yes, that costs money. If you can’t afford one, maybe you can’t afford a reptile. If you can’t afford one for your newest reptile, maybe you have too many reptiles. NOT KNOWING WHAT TEMPERATURE YOU KEEP YOUR PET REPTILE AT IS A COMPLETE NEGLIGENCE AS A PET OWNER.

UV lighting needs to be changed on a regular basis. The bulbs give out light for long periods, but the output of the UV spectrum of light declines with time, generally over the course of 6-12 months depending on the manufacturer and quality of the bulb. Document when you buy new bulbs and when they need to be replaced. Young, actively growing reptiles in particular with high calcium demands cannot do well with a sub optimal level of UV light, even for short periods without suffering.  Commercial pelleted foods are not a staple diet, they are a supplement to a healthy diet. Their nutritional content declines with time. They may be convenient for the owner as they sit in a tub ready to be poured into a feeding bowl, but tortoises need a variety of fresh greens, weeds, grasses, flowers and small amount of vegetables to thrive. Dry pelleted food is not a substitute for a fresh diet. Diets also need to be supplemented with calcium, and other vitamins and minerals that may be lacking in the limited diet we invariably provide in captivity. Lettuce, cucumber and tomato is an extremely poor diet as it has a high water content but very few valuable nutrients. As an aside which is unrelated to this case, I hear from time time time about the act of feeding tortoises dog and cat food. NEVER FEED ANIMAL PROTEIN TO HERBIVOROUS MEDITERRANEAN TORTOISES. (Jam sandwiches or chips are also off the list. I’m not joking!).

If you notice your tortoise or other reptile pet acting or looking strange, then BRING IT TO THE VET! Don’t wait until it can’t move or no longer eats. Don’t wait until you’ve read a few articles and self diagnosed it, then tried to treat it at home. Don’t ask other hobbyists on five separate internet forums until you hear get the answer you want or whatever other DIY home treatment option you might try first. IF YOU CANNOT AFFORD VETERINARY FEES, YOU CANNOT AFFORD THE PET! Reptiles hide illness very well to avoid predation int he wild. If you think they are sick, they are probably sick. Seek a qualified and experienced reptile vet at the earliest opportunity and work with them. Don’t lie to them or withhold important information that could aid their diagnosis (this happens a lot too, though not in this case). A deformed or misshapen shell in tortoises and turtles is always indicative of a problem. If the shell is softening this problem is advanced.

This tortoise today had a softened, flattened shell like a rubber ball. This did not happen overnight. The owner noticed at Christmas that something was wrong. But only brought it in to my clinic when it had stopped eating and stopped moving. The tortoise was so deficient in calcium over a long period of time due to poor heating, poor lighting and poor diet that it had absorbed it’s shell and skeleton of calcium, thus softening the bones to the point they could no longer support it’s body weight. It was undoubtedly in immense pain. It was having to pull it’s forelimbs back and forth to try to keep breathing as it’s collapsed rubbery shell was compressing it’s lungs and causing respiratory distress. It was undoubtedly in multi-systemic organ failure at the tender age of 18 months. It had the potential to outlive it’s owner, it’s owners children and potentially grandchildren if a little more research and effort had gone into it’s care. Sadly, it was beyond help, and I have to take comfort in the fact I could relieve it’s suffering and put it out of it’s misery humanely. I am however, still angry, jaded, frustrated and tired of seeing this problem crop up over and over again whilst trying to maintain an upbeat, positive demeanour that will help educate the owner rather than turn them against the idea of veterinary care.

Below is the video of the tortoise which may be distressing to some people. Please view at your discretion. Please also note that I took this video AFTER the tortoise had died, so it is no longer suffering. It is explicit to show the extreme changes that can occur with MBD as a direct result of poor husbandry and nutrition. If it makes one person improve the care of their pet tortoise it will be worth posting, so please feel free to share this article.

Luxury Digs! What your ‘garden tortoise’ really needs…

Mediterranean tortoises are rousing from hibernation this time of year, and really need conditions to be correct in order to thrive and return to good health following a long period of fasting and dormancy over winter. The critical factors which must be provided correctly to ensure they return to good health and begin eating promptly after waking are provision of appropriate heating and lighting. If keeping them outdoors in the garden straight away after waking from hibernation, they really are at the mercy of the British weather; often too cold and too wet to kick start their metabolic rate which is heavily reliant on external temperature. If tortoises don’t receive the correct heating and UV lighting in this critical period, they often fail to regain appetite, immunity declines, they can become dehydrated and burn off even more of their already depleted energy reserves leaving them prone to infections and organ dysfunction, failure or even death. It is therefore critical that supplemental heating and lighting is provided with a heat lamp and UV light for any period when the British weather is poor, but especially so in the immediate post hibernation period in Spring.

Last weekend I had a post hibernation check in a lovely 30 year old Spur-thigh tortoise named Mr Slow. He was the picture of health, and his very caring owner had commissioned her handy neighbour to build him a state of the art tortoise house in the garden which catered to all of his needs mentioned above. As you can see from the photos below, he has a beautiful house with thermostatically controlled, weather proof porch leading to a covered sleeping area. He has a combined heat and UVB lamp under which to bask which is on a timer, and a special UVB penetrating Perspex sunroof for natural sunlight exposure even on cold days. A ramp leads to the enclosed escape-proof garden for when it is warmer and he wants to  head off and explore! Luxury digs indeed…..

Tortoise House 1Tortoise House 3Tortoise House 2 Tortoise House 4

 

More info on tortoise hibernation, overwintering and post hibernation problems in my previous blog posts here:

https://exoticpetvetblog.wordpress.com/2015/02/20/post-hibernation-problems-in-tortoises/

https://exoticpetvetblog.wordpress.com/2014/10/07/163/

Back to Basics: Keeping pet reptiles & amphibians

Keeping exotic pets such as reptiles and amphibians has massively gained in popularity in recent years. When I was a youngster, I was always interested in nature and wildlife and a lot of what I learned came from observing creatures in their natural habitat, on TV and in real life. Ask my bemused mother. She tells me aged 4 I was more interested in turning over massive rocks in the garden looking for creepy crawlies than watching cartoons! I guess I was doomed to be a nature geek from the start.

In any case, after collecting bugs, tadpoles and mini beasts and keeping them in jam jars as a small child, I graduated and got my first ‘exotic pets’ when I was about 12 years old for Christmas. This was of course after much pleading and convincing my very patient parents it was a good idea and I knew what was involved. The reptile scene in Ireland back then was pretty small, so I managed to find a pet shop on the other side of Dublin that would import some American Green Tree Frogs (Hyla cinerea) from the UK for me. I awaited their arrival eagerly but was awaiting disappointment. Four fairly stressed and none too healthy tree frogs were collected from the pet shop and duly set up in the planted vivarium I had painstakingly prepared for them in the weeks before. I had read every scrap of information I could find in my collection of books. The internet age of information at your fingertips was yet to come!

DSCF0386

A Grey & Green tree frog I later kept having learned my lessons first time around

New pics 002

Naturalistic vivarium in which I housed several tree frogs and Anole lizards, a practice not recommended for beginners as need experience creating the right subtle conditions for all to thrive

Sadly three of the four frogs has abrasions and ulcerations on their skin, and two out of the four very quickly succumbed to secondary infections and died soon after. The other affected frog I managed to save by going to my local vet (a rather rough around the edges, Irish country vet type) and asking him for various antiseptic old fashioned remedy chemicals I had read about in one of my amphibian books. These were potions that wouldn’t have looked out of place on the shelves of an ancient chemistry lab. Malachite Green, Potassium Permanganate and Mercurochrome Blue if my memory serves me correctly. The vet seemed quite bemused by this tiny budding frog doctor at his door and handed over the colourful crystals charging me the princely sum of 50 pence.

basic-malachite-green-775332

That pair of tree frogs survived for many years, after I had got them through the initial acclimatisation period and provided me with hours of fascination observing their behaviour. In the summer any daring bluebottle or housefly that entered the kitchen would be captured by myself, my Dad or brothers and released into the tree frog tank. We had great fun watching them stalk their prey through the branches and vegetation of their enclosure. In the winter I would reduce their temperatures and day length gradually and settle them down to a few months of hibernation before rousing them again in Spring by gradually raising their temperatures and lighting or photoperiod. It was great to see them leaping about again and eagerly searching for food each year. On hot summer evenings (few and far between in Ireland, let me tell you!) the male would call for hours on end, a loud, duck -like quacking sound. My mothers rule was that none of my ‘pets’ were allowed in the house so luckily this racket wasn’t too disruptive. My father, fearing the garage would burn to the ground due to the amount of extension leads I was using, erected shelves and roped in an electrician friend to install electrical sockets in the garage for my ever expanding collection of tanks and aquaria housing various frogs, toads, turtles, snakes and lizards. If I wasn’t busy in the garage tending to and observing the reptiles and amphibians that enthralled me so much, I was often reading about their natural history. Lesson number one: if you’re going to keep an animal successfully, read as much as you can about them!

What ever happened to reading a book?

What ever happened to reading a book?

Which brings me to the point of this article. The most useful and simple advice I can give to any keeper of reptiles and amphibians is to learn about their natural history in the wild, and replicate these conditions in captivity. These are effectively wild animals, and need to be treated as such. The early days of the reptile community when I was growing up revolved mainly around a small shop in Mother Redcaps Market in the old historic part of Dublin near Christchurch Cathedral. The shop was run by two insanely knowledgeable and passionate herpetologists who I know and respect massively to this day. There was a real community of people who would meet and discuss ideas in this tiny shop, and the Herpetological Society of Ireland (http://www.thehsi.org/) was borne out of these informal meetings. The difference I see between the keepers and enthusiasts back then compared with today is that most took a huge interest in the natural behaviours and habitats of their species of interest. Most could reel off the Latin names (and know the significance of them), their natural geographical range, what type of climate the species was accustomed to, the unique feeding habits, natural diet, seasonal variations, subspecies differences, breeding habits, micro-climates, ecological niche and so on. The hobby was not about keeping a ‘pet’ reptile, it seemed to be more about scientific study of a species for many keepers. There was of course many who kept a single corn snake or lizard and doted on it as a beloved pet, but for the most part keepers enjoyed observing the unique biology of this group of animals.

Evolution, Diversity & Natural History

Evolution, Diversity & Natural History

Over the years, as the reptile hobby has gained popularity, these pets are becoming more ‘mainstream’ and are sometimes a better option for people who cannot devote the space, time and economical requirements needed caring for a more traditional pet such as a cat or dog. Unfortunately, with this trend a lot of people have seen pet reptiles and amphibians as lower value pets, and not treated them as worthy of great care and attention. This article by a very knowledgeable colleague makes for an interesting read in that respect, over at Reptile Apartment (http://reptileapartment.com/2013/04/19/disposable-pet-nation/#tc-comment-title). On the other hand we have a whole new wave of extremely devoted pet owners who would do anything for their beloved reptile but perhaps are missing some of the knowledge and understanding of their natural history which can lead to stress and health problems.

The basis of keeping such pets successfully is in researching their requirements and providing as near a replication of wild conditions as possible. All too often in my work time I am presented with a sick animal and a bewildered owner wondering why their animal is unwell. Frequently the owner when questioned knows very little of the conditions required to keep that animal healthy. They may know what species it is and what it eats, but not where it hails from in the world, what temperature it needs to be kept at or even what temperature it is being kept at in their own vivarium! Temperature, humidity and lighting requirements are the fundamental basics of providing reptiles and amphibians with the correct captive environment to thrive, are very specific and vary from species to species. But the number of people who do not know this basic information about how they are keeping their pets is staggering. I will often ask about what equipment the owner is using in a reptile consult for heating and lighting for example. A common answer is: “Oh the correct ones the pet shop sold me”. OK, so my next question will be what temperature their vivarium reaches in the warm end and the cool end, and what it drops to overnight? Sadly I am often met with a blank stare. All too often an owner buys a reptile from a pet shop, listens for a half hour to the shop assistant as to what the animal requires, and never does any further research or reading on what is involved in it’s care. If they are lucky they will have gained some good advice from an experienced and knowledgeable reptile enthusiast. Commonly, they will have taken the advice of a young person who is keen but has received minimal training and is far from knowledgeable on reptile care. A 20-30 minute conversation going over temperatures, heating equipment, cage design, food items, supplements, lighting and so on is a lot of technical information for a new owner to take on board. It is simply not enough to absorb and retain the level of knowledge required to successfully keep a pet reptile amphibian happy and healthy for a natural lifespan. The number of pets that die in captivity soon after being acquired is astounding, and a very poor reflection on the exotic pet hobby in general. In fact, it is one of the tools and statistics used factually or misleadingly depending on your viewpoint to discredit and campaign against the hobby by many animal rights activists (http://www.apa.org.uk/biologist/).

The point I’m most trying to make is that if you are willing to devote a great deal of time researching a species natural history, this will give you a far better chance of successfully keeping that animal as a pet. Buy a book, read care sheets online, join in conversations on forums with other keepers of the same species BEFORE buying the animal in question. If everyone took this effort there would be far better welfare for captive reptiles and amphibians. There is an abundance of information out there, and it can be overwhelming to decipher what is correct and what is wrong. However, if you apply first principles of the natural history of your species in question you can come up with a list of appropriate habitat type, temperature and humidity range, seasonal variations in environmental parameters, social behaviour considerations and so on. Then you tailor the facilities and equipment available to you to replicate such conditions in captivity. The approach I see all too frequently of giving a prescription of equipment needed for a particular species is totally unsuitable in many cases. For example, many care sheets will recommend a certain wattage heat lamp for a certain size vivarium, which doesn’t take into account the ambient temperature in the pet owners home, how cold the room is in winter versus summer and so forth. They may also state what brand of UVB tube to buy, but leave out factors like the longevity of that bulb, how often it needs to be replaced or the fact that you need a stronger UVB output bulb if it is outside the vivarium shining through mesh as opposed to hanging inside the vivarium itself. Better advice would be to choose the appropriate wattage of bulb that provides the correct temperature gradient in your particular setup, encouraging the use of a simple and inexpensive thermometer to measure said temperature! Experimenting with the equipment for your particular circumstances to produce the right environment is critical. Similarly, you will often find prescriptive advice about your particular animal along the lines of: ” This species doesn’t need a heat lamp, it should be kept with a heat mat alone. I have done it that way for years”. The first problem that arises when advice like this is followed blindly is that it relates only to how that particular person keeps their animals. Maybe that person has a large collection of leopard geckos in a room devoted to reptiles and keeps them in a rack system containing many animals closely together. Maybe for their reptile room the ambient temperature is enough as background heat to keep their animal healthy and well. Apply the same advice to a young boy keeping his first leopard gecko on his bedroom dresser in a glass tank and your advice becomes inappropriate or dangerous. The boy is just using a heat mat under half of the glass and creates a wholly inappropriate environment where the ambient temperature of the tank itself is room temperature in the cool end, subject to daily and seasonal variations in the temperature of the bedroom, and the gecko has the choice of either sitting on substrate warmed by the heat mat or being elsewhere in the tank at a lower temperature than required. Add to the situation that the boy has been told geckos need a hide box in their vivarium and the boy places it in the cooler end of the tank. The gecko is a juvenile so is stressed and will not eat because it is either hiding but too cold to have an appetite or digest it’s food, or it is warming up out in the open and feels threatened by the possibility of predation. All of these subtle factors can lead to a debilitated, stressed animal which succumbs to illness and dies. The boy did what he was told by the pet shop, or read on a care sheet online, but the gecko still died. The fact is he took far too simplistic an approach to keeping what are highly specialised pets that don’t forgive shortcuts in care. To purchase the correct set up and equipment needed to provide the correct environment and care for his gecko may have far exceeded what his parents were willing to spend on his birthday present. So the pet shop or care sheet gave them prescriptive advice and shortcuts ignoring the subtleties of environmental control and they assumed they were doing right.

Those tree frogs I bought as a 12 year old succumbed to transportation stress and being kept poorly in the pet shop both in Dublin in dry conditions under a high wattage heat lamp and perhaps also in the UK before they found themselves in my care. I managed to save two of the four which went on and thrived afterwards, mainly because I read and understood in great detail what their natural requirements were and used what equipment and conditions I could afford at the time to replicate these exactly. The advice I give to anybody new to keeping reptiles is to treat their reptiles and amphibians not so much as humanised pets but as wild animals, and see yourself as a zoo keeper aiming to replicate wild conditions. Stress is a big killer as it weakens their immune system and natural defenses. Handling or disturbing your animals too frequently should be avoided, especially in newly acquired animals or shy species. Fluctuations in temperature or incorrect temperatures even by a few degrees are enough to depress immunity or digestion over time for example. Keeping a high humidity species in drier conditions than those in the wild will lead to serious health issues. Feeding a diet far higher in fat or deficient in certain minerals and vitamins is a massive cause of mortality over time in our exotic pets. When researching your pet before you decide if you can care for it, ignore the ‘experts’ online shouting prescriptive lists of how to keep the species in question, unless they are shouting lists of scientific tangible information on the specific conditions needed and offering advice on how best to replicate those conditions. There are a multitude of accessories and equipment available nowadays, the important thing is to know not only how to use them but why you are using them and monitoring if they are helping you provide the perfect replication of the natural environment needed for your pet.

If you are interested in hearing me speak a little more on the importance of reptile housing and care then I am giving an online lecture next Monday June 23rd at 8 pm, registration and attendance is FREE and I will be giving some more throughout the summer so stay tuned:

http://petwebinars.co.uk/upcoming-webinars/

Would love to hear your comments, so feel free to send them in below.

All the best,

Sean.